A Review of the Production Cycle of Titanium Dioxide Pigment

Titanium is a very important element for several industrial applications, being one of the ninth
most abundant elements in the Earth’s crust (0.63% wt). In this work it will discuss the different
mining and industrial activities involved in the production of titanium dioxide. The first step analyzed
will treat about the beneficiation mining process of titanium mineral, and secondly, it will
discuss the two main processes of the TiO2 manufacturing (sulphate and chloride routes). In addition,
we will show different uses of the titanium dioxide pigment as filler in paper, plastics and
rubber industries and as flux in glass manufacture, etc. Finally, we will show that the old wastes
are currently called co-products since they were valorized, being commercialized by the Spanish
industry of TiO2 production in different fields such as agriculture, civil engineering, or cement
manufacturing.

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